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Johnny Guilherme

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  • #57719

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Jeff you can set up an “assembly line” in which pull versus push together with different lots sizes which will lead you to the one piece flow. I have on may occassions done this exercise for training purposes. If you wish i can give you some more details.
    regards
    Johnny Guilherme
    [email protected]

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    #57715

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    How about a sample per piece of equipment and then across the equipment types. You would have to identify the variables that make up your cycle time i.e. moves, loads etc and then place these on a “operations chart” in which you break down into 5 or 10 minute intervals. Then you will have to watch the equipment and mark down on your chart over say an 8 hour shift to see what takes up your time.
    I once had to do this kind of observation on a warehouse activity and it did yield some results. The key might be to decided how many days/hours you would need to observe to get a good representation of what is happening with your equipment.
    Or maybe a camera with time lapse facilities so that you can do a time study by observing the work. One uses cameras on change over to do time and motion study and these studies are quiet effective.
    Hope that helps
    regards
    Johnny Guilherme (BB)

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    #57711

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    There is nothing wrong with quick wins-sometimes the following the DMAIC approach can be long and tideous-many dont understand the stats and tools.
    I too worked in the pharmaceutical for many years and people got excited about quick wins.
    Johnny Guilherme (BB)
     

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    #169333

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Could i get some of those videos as well posted to jguilhermeat consol.co.za
    much appreciated
    Johnny

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    #133832

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Andy Hi i am not quiet sure what is your objective in what you have posted. But if i understand you correctly then what i suggest is that you define each of the processes per the variaty of products you have. Then you will have to do a time study on each of the processes i.e. time each process over a good period of time and try to rate the worker doing the process and obviously get a time per process. Using a typical stopwatch with a TMU units could do the trick. You can see someone working at snail pace as apposed to someone puting in some effort and working deligently. Once you have each time per process per variant, then you can understand the utilization at each process/person, you can define the bottleneck operation and you can also then understand how many units could be made in the time available. This helps you set up a standard for the line.
    You can then use this standard for capacity planning as well as cost purposes. With regards WIP-people will always build up WIP, because they are comfortable having WIP around. WIP can be romoved once people are working in a synchronised fashion.
    I am not sure if i have answered your posting since you have not clearly defined what your objective is. I have a line standard sheet that i used to use when doing time studies and trying to balance lines. If you want it let me know.
    regards
    Johnny

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    #133756

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Andy
    You have to get a baseline cost (for direct labour) and a time study will help here. Thats why understanding the time it takes to make a product is important from a direct labour point of view. Remember unit costs are made up of direct labour, indirect labour, overhead costs and material costs. The question that was posed originally was about direct labour (i think??) and how it contributes to the unit cost. This was not clarified by the person who posted originally.
    What you are talking about is waste i.e. wip, operator wasting time. This can be seen in variances of actual time to produce versus the standard that was set up through the time study.
    Hopefully we are talking about the same issue.
    Johnny

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    #133351

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    If you want to reduce WIP, you could start by reducing the batch size (thats if it is possible). Leadtime is a function of the batch size. By doing this make sure that you look at set up times within your process. If you can reduce set up times then you can look at reducing the batch size. Remember if you can save on 20% of your set  up then you could reduce your batch or lot size by 20%. But remember WIP is there for a reason. It make people feel comfortable and tpically hides away problems. So by removing the WIP you will get very aggitated people and you will expose probems. You can typically use the SMED approach to reducing your set up times. Hope this hellps.
    Johnny

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    #133350

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Whiskeydelta i am not sure that i understand your problem. If you have measured the necessary times for each of the activities/processes on the line, then what you must do is try to balance the line as best you can, (by maybe assigning more people, putting tasks togther etc). Once you have done that then you look at the slowest operation in that process and based on the available time for the shift/day you can then work out the units/hour or as i used to do it hours/thousand units. Once you have the units/hour you then assign the direct labour rates to get a costing per unit based on the time it takes to make one unit. This will then be your “run time”. Set up time for the process is different and i am not sure how you would handle that. Hope i have been able to help.
    Johnny

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    #133131

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    The control limits shoud have been calculated once the the PC (process capability) study was conducted. Prior to the process capability study you should have done some sort of optimising on the process in order to determine the optimal control settings (together with upper and lower ranges for these control settings). The way i understand it you should not have to recalculate your control limits again.
    Just my opinion.
    Johnny

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    #133062

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Mike our reactor project is taking shape. We are busy with the conceptual design. I have an external consultant (expert on vacuum) to help with the design. Implementation will happen during the course of the year. I see that you are having a seminar on six sigma at the Castle in Kahalami. I would love to have attended, but your costs per delegate are pretty high. Anyway hope all continues to go well with you.
    Johnny

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    #132969

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    I agree with your opinion. How is it going Mike, long time no hear. Are you still in Rustenberg??
    regards
    Johnny Guilherme

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    #117737

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    New-VGB
    Do you mean location?? i.e. in what part of the world am I???
    Johnny

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    #117708

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Mike
    What about the big “5” you have seen in SA.
    By the way i have taken the idea you gave me up on our granulation area a little further. I am looking at drums on wheels with an exit pipe at the bottom of the drum. They can dispense all the powders into one drum (as apposed to 7 steel containers) and take it up and get it connected to the vacuum system. They then start the vacuum and the powders are loaded into the moritz vessel as apposed to loading conatiner by container. I am also looking at say loading 3 drums(with different materials) at a time. The time savings is enormous. Once it is implemented you can come and have a look.
    I spoke to Uleces-he did help with the setup costs. When you visited Roche you mentioned about the 5 pillars in Lean which have to be done before going the route of JIT and kanban. What were they??? Also where can i get some videos for training on “world class aspects”??
    regards
    Johnny Guilherme

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    #117501

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Mike
    Thanks. I did try to contact Ulices but was not successful. I will try again.
    Regards
    Johnny

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    #117500

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Mia hi thanks for responding.
    The situation with this line is that we already are doing “short” runs according to our production manager. The issue lies in having the machine down for such long periods of time and hence at times having to run overtime because of shoratge of capacity. One obvious way of reducing the setup(i.e.an immediate benefit) is by introducing a second setter of which at this stage i cannot justify. Its the cost of a setter versus the cost of downtime on the machine. Surely the overhead on that machine (when the machine is not running) is much more than employing another setter. This is what i am looking at. If i can employ a second setter i could possibly reduce the set up by at least 40%. At this stage i have asked the cost accountants for the overhead cost and the number they gave me is very small.
    I have videod the whole set up and will be doing a time and motion study on the set-up. So there will be more improvements that will be done.
    Regards
    Johnny

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    #112251

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Darth
    Where can one get more info on Gage R&R. I must admit I read your posting but it did not mean much to myself. I looked on the blue next to this discussion forum. Unfortunately I could not get in. i.e. what doe sit mean and where can one apply it.
    Johnny

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    #112174

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Mike
    Give us the answer. Maybe because of the “edgyness” the respective people are not posting. Maybe they are just busy working. I keep wondering about the edgyness-were you guys at school together or what???
    Johnny

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    #112169

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    TBB
    Its seems like some of your benefits are not tangible. You could assess though what each customer spends on average. Then look at your capacity for customers i.e. how many you handled before the improvement. Now after the improvement how many more customers can you handle. The extra customers that you can now accomodate times what each customer spends on average could give you some sort of return for your efforts. So yes your increase in sales is directly derived from your solution implemented. This however depends if you will get more customers.
    You have basically turned no productive time into productive time. You certainly have happier customers.
    Hope that helps.
    Johnny

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    #112082

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Hi Mike
    You are so right about the “lowering of the water and exposing the rocks”. Back at my previous position, when kanbans were introduced and the WIP suddenly dropped lots of process issues came up and guess what people did not know or have any tools to help in sorting out those issues. The reaction was build up the WIP again and forget about gains made on reducing holding costs associated with reduced WIP.
    Anyway I am busy with reading the six sigma team fieldbook. Its easy ready and makes a lot of sense.
    Johnny

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    #112001

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    I have already. He has been at my home and got me some literature on six sigma- “The six sigma way team fieldbook” and another two. I am busy reading the six sigma way team fieldbook and it seems really good. He will still be in SA for a while and I have plans for him to come a give a talk to our CEO and other directors on six sigma.
    regards

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    #111993

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Stan
    Thanks for the info. I have had some experience with SMED but not extensive stuff. Here in SA people are scared of the word JIT or LEAN. The opportunity to implement such ideas in my current (and previuos) position has been difficult. I am actually busy with equipment and process validation-a little different from LEAN. I was very focused and read a lot about JIT when i first started working. It seemed a while ago that LEAN had died a good death. But from this forum its seems very much alive. I want to keep up with what happening in the lean and six sigma world, and so I appreciate your input.
    Johnny

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    #111991

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Darth
    I read Mike’s post and the rest of the thread. OK now I know why you were asking him the question. I am right about the meaning of “takt” time. We have always used the word customer “cycle” time here in SA. When I heard the word takt I knew it meant what I undertood as customer cycle time. By the way I have never seen any factory here in SA running to any takt time with parts being delivered JIT to the line. Its all theory here-managers are just petrified by the word JIT or lean for that matter.
    regards
    Johnny

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    #111988

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Darth
    All is very well and extremely hot in SA. Have not heard from Mike C. Maybe he is lost down the mine shaft.
    I agree with your advantages for set up reduction. In my attempts to reduce set up time I used a time lapse camera which enables one to define all the steps in the set up and time taken for each step. Then one must try and take as much of the “internal set up” and make it into “external set” i.e. dont fetch tools during the set but prepare needed tools before the set up takes place. Then the rest is about comming up with better options for set up i.e. quick release couplers for oil circulation on an injection mould tool instead of nuts and screws etc etc.
    Whne you gonna visit SA-lots of six sigma opportunities here.
    Johnny

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    #111898

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Darth
    Is takt time not the time a factory/process needs to “tick” at or produce to line up with the required use (takt) as required by the customer such that ones factory is then making “Just in Time” for customer requirements. With this in place then one does not make what is not needed or build up unnecessary finish goods in a warehouse.
    I am lost and if so what is the link with with the p-value.
    Johnny

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    #111890

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Dog Sxxt
    Thats very true. Even if one has had exposure to the six sigma tools and has had implementaton experince, where I live the certification is a big issue.

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    #111889

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Titu
    Specification limits are normally limits given by the customer for a product whereas control limits are established once a capability study has been done on a machine/process. So you might find that after doing your capability study that your control limits dont look or line up with the spec limits. Control limits are then in essence a funcion of what the machine or piece of equipment is capable of. If you need an example of how to do a capability sstudy let me know.
    Johnny

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    #111880

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Holly
    Our company has a reward system. Its based purely on achieving over and above the normal routine functions we do on a day to day basis. The incentive is based on the following: 1. Achieve company objectives, 2 Achieve objectives within the team that I am part of and 3. achievement of personal objectives set. All this equates to an extra 3 months of salary. All three have different “weights” and form a percentage of the 3 months. So if all objectives are achieved I can then get and extra 3 months of salary-it works quite well and encourages the team to work together.
    Johnny
     
     

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    #111876

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Mike R Hill
    Lean looks at overall flow of products i.e. trying to reduce work in progress leadtime and final product leadtime. If you introduce pull systems (kanbans), then one looks at controllling the flow of product from point of manufacture to point of use without overproducing i.e. making what is needed when it is needed and not overproducing. My previous company made parts whether or not the next stage of production needed it or not. This “extra” product went and “sat” in the warehouse. The cost on work in progress was huge. The accountants thought we had lots of value in the warehouse, but little did they realise it was money being tied up in WIP. By the way our costings system used to drive and help such build up of WIP. Coupled with kanbans go the control of work. Scheduling of works orders take place on the shop floor and there is then no need for a planning department to issue works orders to the shop floor i.e. reduced scheduling and paper flow.
    Lean also looks at how one will change dies and tools a lot quicker (called SMED-single minute excahange of dies). If you can change a machine quicker from one die to the next then one can justify smaller batches and more change overs. Smaller batches means reduced product leadtimes. Reduced leadtimes means happier customers. Smaller batches also means less “holding stock” value and money tied up in stock is released for other use. We worked our holding stock value and at one stage it was around 21% of the value of the stock. Interest rates were very high at that stage i.e. 15%(bank lending rates).
    The concept of level scheduling says that if I make products A, B and C in say the following quantities A-100, B-50 and C-25, then from a Lean aspect we should try to make A-50, B-25 and C-12 and then repeat the cycle of A-50, B-25 and C-12. If you look at a typical triangle depicting the quantity of product for the 1st scenario above versus the 2nd then what happens is that one is carrying less stock with shorter leadtimes and so your holding stock value will go down. The accountants like this and so do customers who always have the product they need. You also ensure that you have a good mix of product always leaving the factory. Imagin you want to purchase a BMW 316I and when you get to the factory they are busy making a BMW 318I and will only change over to produce 316’s in a while. You will then have to wait. There are more aspects.
    Anyway these are just three concepts that I have applied. If i then looks at six sigma aspects then I look at the machine/process itself. I want to then ensure quality at source from a peace of equipment that is optimised and repeatable in its process.By the way having a repeatable process is critical in the pharmaceutical industry. The auditors will look for this repeatability. I am in the pharmaceuticals by the way. So lean might look more at the bigger picture where as six sigma will look closer to the actual process/machine itself. This you should know more than myself.
    A little long winded but hope this helps.
    Johnny 

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    #111869

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Darth
    You are right. It would be nice though if Tony’s first question was answered. I too would like to know what make a real good BB.
    Johnny

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    #111867

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Marsh
    I am busy trying to establish a process improvement drive at my company. I know I will confront same or similar issues to what you have described. Would love to hear what others have to say on this issue.
    Johnny

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    #111815

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Anita
    Surely mapping out the flow of documentation will help in identifying where the waste lies. Then maybe you can improve. Otherwise “attach the piece of paper or document to you shirt” and follow the process (and record) to see where and what time it spends in the document pipeline.
    Hope that helps.
    Johnny

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    #111671

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Ron
    If lean is not JIT, then what are the specific tools/eliments under the LEAN umbrella that one can use and apply. You mention velocity in a process. Introducting the concept of pull versus push system (kanban) essentially reduces and lowers work in progress. Once WIP is lowered your product will flow a lot quicker through your factory. Leadtime is a function of WIP. Lower the WIP and you leadtime is reduced.
    Also by introducing the pull concept, control of work gets handled by the people who do the work on the shop floor. This then stops the paper flow from a production planning office down to the shop floor indicating what one needs to produce next. There are so many more benefits to introducing the pull system, that to write them down will just occupy space.
    I once sat in on a demo. I was a JIT project (final year) given by a close college. He set up 4 containers. Container 1 was connected to container 2 with a small plastic pipe. Container 2 was connected to container 3 with a small pipe and so on. Container 1 was at the highest point followed by con 2, con3 and con4. Then water (simulating product) was poured into the container (the con simulated a process) and allowed to flow until it reached the last con. Anyway when the con1 was filled to the top it took an awful long time to get to con4. When con1 was half filled and allowed to flow it reached container 4 a lot quicker. Maybe you could try this yourself and see the impact on flow by reducing the water (product).
    regards
    Johnny

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    #111624

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Mike interesting debate.
    I just wanted to know. Is the LEAN just the new word for Just in Time (JIT) manufacturing which as I know encompasses some of the following: Kanban (pull systems), level scheduling, SMED (single minute exchange of dies or quick set up, quality at source, flow manufacturing or group cell technology, visual control etc.
    JIT in my previous workplace was called CFM (continous flow manufacturing). I have also heard of it being called “One Piece Flow”. So many different words probably meaning the same thing. Now its lean.
    Is the above your understanding of lean and that of others on this forum.
    Johnny

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    #111557

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Robert thanks for the feedback. The frustrating thing is that when I say I have experience with statistica, people dont even know statistica, but they know minitab very well. On my cv I have statistica as a package and not minitab and so companies are asking for minitab experience.
    Johnny

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    #111543

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Not wanting to discuss the commission on software, is the package called “Statistica” popular at all in the US??. Are you familiar with this package at all.
    Johnny 

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    #111470

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Dmitry
    Why not go to valid sampling plans i.e. “ANSI/ASQ Z1.9-1993 Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by variables for percent nonconforming”. For the batch size and the inspection level desired plus the AQL value for the type of defect, major, minor or crtical the tables will indicate what sample to pull and what your acceptance criteria will be.
    For inprocess control (over length of run) you can decide on the sample size and frequency. Typically what I have used is a sample size of 5(you can also use 4 or even 3). The frequency is decided by yourself. Typically if your process is new, then maybe sample more often. Once the process is under control you can reduce the frequency for pulling your sample.
    Hope this helps-(if I have understood your question correctly??)
    Johnny

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    #111410

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Sandeep
    Downtime is part of the “Internal Failure Costs”. It can be as follows: lost time costs that are the result of any defects or defectives in sub systems i.e. printing press down due to a paper breaks, vehicle idle time due to part failure).
    Hope this helps
    Johnny

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    #110992

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Mike you might be a “bad” consultant, one never knows. Maybe you need to work on being a “good” consultant!!!!!
    Johnny

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    #110988

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Tom
    Firstly I would define my cost catogories. they are as follows:
    Failure costs, appraisal costs and prevention costs. Failure costs can be divided into Internal and external failure costs. Internal failure costs can be as follows: Scrap(nett loss in time/labour or material resulting from defectives that cannot be repaired or used), Rework (cost of correcting defectives to make them fit for purpose), Retest (cost of reinspection of products that have been reworked), Downtime (lost time due to defects or defectives in systems), Yield loss and Disposition(effort required to determine if non conforming products can be used)
    Then we have External failure costs. Complaint Adjustment (investigation and correction costs for complaints), Returned material (defects returned from the field), Warranty costs(costs involved in service to customers under waranty), Allowances (costs incurred when concessions are made due to substandard products.
    Then we have appraisal costs: Incomming goods and material inspection, inspection and test, laboratories and test houses, maintenance to standard of test equipment, materials and services consumed, evaluation of stocks (testing products in field storage).
    Prevention costs: Quality planning (activities which collectively create the overall quality plan), New products review, Training, Process control, quality data acquisition and analysis, quality reporting and improvement projects.
    Once the above are undertsood then I suppose you need to find out if anyone is keeping track of such costs. The catogories above cover the whole production facility i.e. purchasing, warehousing etc.
    Its a bit long winded, but hope this helps.
    Johnny

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    #110968

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Ron
    Thanks-it was long but its makes sense. Thanks for clearing this up for me.
    Johnny

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    #110966

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Ron
    Can you go through that last sentence “On the other hand…….nearest spec limit”. Now I am a little confused.
    Johnny

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    #110961

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    John
    I dont have any links, but an example for you. Just recently we commissioned a 14 head ointment filling machine (fully automated). Anyway we were told (by the manufacture of the machine) that the filling into small tins could be controlled to the nth degree and so accuracy of fill volumes should not be a problem.
    During the factory acceptance testing I took lots of samples from each fillhead and I took samples over time. I then plotted the data and did the normal capability calculations. Guess what the data was all “over the show” and capability indices really bad. The manufacture did not believe what I was telling them, but my boss did.
    Johnny

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    #110902

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    You are right. Going back to the original posting I noticed Paul mentioned attribute type data and not variable data. I saw the numbers he posted and assumed variable data. Obviously then using np or c type charts would be the answer. Thanks for pointing this out to myself. I am still on a learning curve, having done some quality engineering and having been exposed to a lot of the tools but lacking application.
    regards
    Johnny

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    #110679

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Henrik
    Where are youu based???. Could I perhaps get in touch with you.
    regards
    Johnny

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    #110667

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Pierre
    Now the word attitude is supposedly what i was wanting to get to in my postings. The wrong attitude with the right tools will never work. People are also just looking out for themselves and their own pockets. Some managers and CEO’s are around just for a while-enough time to secure the future-and so who cares about introducing and making a program like six sigma work. Its probably the guys like you and I who stick around with a company for a while and would like to be part of the change and implementation (of programs like six sigma), but never get the opportunity because of wrong attitudes of people in more senior positions. Hope this makes sense.
    Johnny

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    #110662

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Pierre
    Not wanting to sound negative, but BM’s and merc’s and aircraft have been around for decades. What philosophies were be used then to experience the quality of the vehicle or aircraft being used.
    I think Phil is just trying to highlight that some of the stuff has been around for a while but maybe is being packaged in a different carton. I am all for the tools-but my only concern is getting everybody (operators, CEO’s, amanagers etc) to believe in them and then apply.
    regards
    Johnny

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    #110659

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Phil
    As much as i dont want to agree with you, I suppose I have to agree. I lot of the stuff has been around for years. In my previuos company we had a JIT programme, which then was called Continuous flow manufactruing (CFM), now referred to as Lean manufactruing. So in essence as someone else has written, old wine in new glasses.
    The real sad story is trying to sell new words to operators on the shop floor. These guys really become tired of new words and so they look at management  and say you are fools without any proper vision and a way forward.
    On a more positive note, the real issue lies with people in management position having the guts to take the tools and applying them. Also its about maintaining the momentum after something new is introduced i.e. on CEO starts something and when he leaves the next guy continues on the same path.(in my experience this is a big problem).
    Anyway I dont think we must also just blame the tools i.e. six sigma, its really about people making it happen. So lets blame the people supposedly in charge and not the tools.
    Just my opinion.
    Johnny Guilherme

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    #110590

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    You can justify WIP by counting the WIP (if possible) and then cost it out per costing given by your costing department. It might not be vary accurate, but maybe count at different times and then get some sort of average wip per work station or department. Once the leadtime is improved then you estimate the future “look” wip and cost this out. Then there must be some sort of savings between the old and new situation.
    Johnny Guilherme

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    #110532

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Henrik
    Where are you based. have you an e-mail address so that I contact you.
    regards
    Johnny

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    #110173

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Stan
    Can you help. I have never really understood why the six sigma. Does this mean 3 sigma to the left of the target anf 3 to the right equalling 6. You mentioned 1.5 sigma which then equates to 3 sigmain total. Why then is it called 6 sigma. Also how does one arrive at the 3.4 dpm once the six sigma is achieved.
    many thanks
    Johnny

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    #110165

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Never heard of it. Hope its not another buzz word. There are so many around that one cannot keep up.
    Johnny

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    #109870

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Just go to the ASQC website. I think you can order this docs from them. They are pretty expensive.
    Johnny

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    #109867

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Have you had a look at the ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1993 American National Standard, Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes. There are similar tables for “variables” type measurements.
    Hope this helps.
    regards
    Johnny

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    #109865

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Hey Mike how is it going.
    I am still looking forward to meeting you. Are you back from the US. I tried to call on your mobile but there was no response. Looking forward to hearing from you.
    regards
    Johnny Guilherme

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    #109022

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Tony
    Maybe what you can do is take the attribute and make it a variable by doing the following. Classify the attribute with say the following (if possible): i.e. dark or burnt print, then dark print, then print ok, the light print, then to light a print. You can then assign some sort of number to each of the catogories above i.e. 1, 2, 3 etc. Once you measure the then out give it the number per the classification above.
    I had a similar project where we were printing on IV solution bags and trying to define the best printing control parameters for the best print. The sample normally for a variable (in my experience) would be say 20. But because you are dealing with with an attribute, I would then look at a bigger sample size i.e. 30.
    Hope this helps-if you require more info and my posting has not made any sense you can e-mail at [email protected]. I do have the document in which we documented the above and I could refer to it for you.
    Hope this helps
    Johnny

    0
    #107448

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Minna
    I was also looking for reading on six sigma-a college recommended books by Michael L George-look at the “George Group” advert on this website. He has a number of books on six sigma. With regards the training, that I dont know. I am resident in South Africa and dont know of anyone doing training on six sigma.
    regards
    Johnny

    0
    #107269

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Tita Hi
    With regards Q3-you can only do cabability calculations i.e. Cp and Cpk on variable data i.e. data that you can measure. You cannot calculate these indeces on attribute type data i.e. data that you cannot measure. Cp and Cpk are a function of the average of the data and upper spec and lower specification limits. So for attribute type data you would typically have percentage defects. Hope this helps with Q3. I cannot help with the other quaestions.
    Johnny

    0
    #107252

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Sowmya Hi
    You first have to do a capability study on your process. Identify what is to be measured on your cables, then run the process and pull some samples over a period of time i.e. a sample size of 5 is good for capability studies. Then take you average of each sample and the grand average of the whole process and with your statistical tables or software you can work out your upper and lower control limits. Hope this helps.
    Johnny

    0
    #107251

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Johna, the software that comes to mind is called “Visio”. Its a window based package.
    regards
    Johnny

    0
    #106715

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Hi Jag. The 10 factors that you talk about-are these machine control parameters which contribute to the quality of the product you are making?? If so, why not run the process for a while and then see if you can cut down on some of these factors. Maybe you will find that some of them can be fixed and never have to be changed over time. This will make you DOE at lot simpler. There is someone I know in the US, his name is Dave Ingram. He might be able to help you. You can contact him at [email protected].
    Regards
    Johnny Guilherme

    0
    #106714

    Johnny Guilherme
    Participant

    Hi Giovanni
    If I understand you question correctly, the issue is with holding cost. You would have to estimate at any one time the amount of work in progress (and for that matter finsish goods stock) that is “lying” around and attach a value to it. Holding cost can be calculated. Where I work it is normaly between 15 and 20% of the actual value of the stock. By reducing your cycle time, then lead times will be reduced, but so will your work in progress. The holding cost will then come down. Other non quantifiable aspects would be as said reduced lead times, reduced quality issues as a result of lower work in progress.Hope this helps.
    regards
    Johnny Guilherme

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