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Praneet

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  • #67601

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Nita
    Lets revisit the basics first. In order to calculate the DPMO we need to do two things first (a) measure the number of defects & (b) we need to identify the number of opportunities
    In so far as your project is concerned what you need to do is to clearly define what a defect is. Having done this what you need to do next is identify one unit of work and the number of opportunities for error in that one unit of work. Once you have done this you measure your process / product and track the number of defects and divide this by the Total Number of Opportunites (# of Opportunities x Number of Units of Work) Multiplied by 1 Million.
    I know that what I just elimentary and would need some amount of customisation in so far as your project is concerned. Would be glad ot help you out in case you need more clarifications
    Cheers

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    #67599

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Rod
    What you have said is what a lot of companies around the world have started realising, the effects of the tremendous process variances in the administrative services of the company are indeed quite significant and do contribute a lot to the costs of Poor Quality.
    What you need to do is to sit with the Heads of the Department of these various Processes and draw process maps of the process that these guys are responsible for. Once you do this you will be able to identify the areas which contribute significantly to the process variations.
    This exercise will also create a funnel of projects which need to taken up to ensure that the operations are streamlined. Mind you this process does take a lot of time …and in my opinion it is well worth the effort since it gives the entire team a good perspective of what the problem areas are as well as it will give you a list of all possible Six Sigma projects that need to be taken up.
    Cheers
     

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    #67598

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi John
    In Six Sigma there are only two Methdologies DMAIC & DMADV. The former is used for enhancing the Quality of existing Process / Products while the latter for Developing New Products / Processes. These two Methodologies are supported by a variety of Statistical as well as Non Statistical Tools & Techniques. FMEA, Fishbone Analysis (a.k.a Ishikawa Diagram), QFD are examples of Non Statistical Tools while Process Capability studies, Regression Analysis, Correlation Analysis etc etc are examples of Statistical Tools.
    Hence as you can see there are no tools which can be specific to a function / department but the Tools of Six Sigma are applicable for all types of Industries which is why it has gained so much of popularity worldwide.
    From an HR perspective what you need to do is help the Six Sigma Core team in institutionalising the Six Sigma way of thinking within your Organisation. Ask any Six Sigma expert and she / he will tell you that the biggest hurdle that they face is getting people to accept this “CHANGE”
    Cheers
     

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    #67537

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Carol
    FMEA, as everyone has mentioned so far will tell you which pain areas to tackle first. FMEA is essentially a tool for prioritising areas to initiate Preventive and Corrective actions.
    Having done this exercise, you now need to define the norms for the prioritised variables identified and establish Control plans to ensure that these variables stay within the norms decided upon.
    Cheers
     

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    #67534

    Praneet
    Participant

    Yo TCJ
    Way to go man !!! Hi Poornima,,, there are only two ways in which you can go once a company initiates the Six Sigma initiative ..either up or down..it all depends on how the Attitude of the Top Management.. Always remember that in a bottle the Bottleneck is always at the top likewise the bottleneck for successfully sustaining this initiative is at the Top …
    Having said this Mr Hammer quite a few companies have started reporting Savings thru Six Sigma as part of their balance sheet figures…
     
    Cheers
     

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    #67533

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi
    I have had a fabulous experience in getting DMAIC projects done with the Union Members (and we did have a very strong Union). We went through the same frustration of getting people to start doing DMAIC projects… but tell me one thing isnt that what we as Six Sigma practitioners go through getting even the Management team to do projects.. well we did have the typical resistance to this change . But the way we went about generating enthusiasm and participation was by creating an environment of fun and recognition around the whole program … the results were astounding , we had union members approaching us for projects for mentoring them and so on and so forth..
    I could go on and on but have to end here .. One takeaway from my side..Direct your efforts towards Change Management , Create an environment of fun and recognition and everything else will fall in place
     
    Cheers

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    #67513

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Sandra
    You are most welcome.. Unfortunately I am not aware of any retailer, atleast in India who has implemented Six Sigma.
    Though in my opinion it is going to be only a matter of time before they would start doing so, given the fact that we do have some international players already coming into this place.
    If there is any other way I could be of assistance please do let me know …
    Cheers
     

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    #67508

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Sandra
    How about a thousand instances, other than manufacturing, where Six Sigma has been used effectively?
    All work consists of a series of steps that need to be done, be it in the manufacturing sector or the Services Sector. Defects are caused because one or some of the steps in the entire process is not being done right. Now you need to identify those pain areas and put in preventive steps in place to ensure that defects do not occur.
    Now this seem quite simple, but let me caution you that it is not that simple.
    One of the most important pillars that the Six Sigma movement rests on is the Importance of data and data capturing … cause if you need to improve then you need to know where you are and if you dont know where you are then there is really nothing much that you can do to improve…
    Cheers
     
     

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    #67489

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Ben
    lets look at the Gage R&R issue from this perspective…. what we are trying to do is basically reduce the effect of the Measurement System variation on the actual variation of the part / component. To that extent , irrespective of whether the tolerance is one sided or double sided it really doesnt matter as long as the Measurement System variation is below 10%
    Well that’s what I have been taught.. Would really appreciate if someone else could enlighten me more
    Cheers and have a great day
     

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    #67462

    Praneet
    Participant

    The way the Six Sigma Organisation is Structured is as follows .. Champion / Master Black Belt / Black Belt/ Green Belt.. now this doesnt mean that the GB’s are the lowest level employees of the Traditional Organisation Structures that we are used to.. GB’s are people who have taken up Six Sigma projects in the areas that they have chosen. The GB could be a junior Engineer or a Senior Manager in that organisation, but essentially since he is doing a Six Sigma project.. they are known as Green Belts.BB’s besides doing Six Sigma projects also have the responsibility for maintaining a healthy Engagement and Effectivess Index of the Six Sigma initiative besides helping Green Belts with their projects..
    Hope this answers your query
    Regards and have a great day

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    #67280

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Philippe,
    The way I see it , what you need at this point of time is not to explain to your bosses and colleagues what DOE, FMEA, QFD etc etc and all those Statistical & Non Statistical tools work , but what you need to do is to explain to them what are the benefits that companies are accruing by implementing the Six Sigma strategy. All you need to do is inform them of the various kinds of Industries in which Six Sigma is being implemented. The financial benefits of doing the program , Case studies of companies where Six Sigma has been successfully been implemented (and there are tons of places where you can get this information), the timeframe needed after which the results can be seen. The kind of resources that would be needed in terms of Manpower, Budget & Infrastructure.
    Make your Six Sigma pitch look like a Business Plan , where you have Benefits on one hand (and these better be Financial Benefits, if you want the big boss to sit up and take notice) and on the other side the resources that you may need to ensure that the work gets done.
    And if you believe and know in the power of Six Sigma to deliver $’s to your bottomline then there is no way the CEO can afford to look away from it.
    Believe me this works , I have actually seen it happen.

    Regards and all the best for your presentation

    Praneet

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    #67248

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Sonu
    Can you be a bit more specific about to your request?? What do you mean by customisation of the FEMA tool??

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    #67247

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Gurjot,
    I shall try and help you out with ur problem. The foundation of any Six Sigma project is to first define the problem correctly. Once you have identified what the problem is you now need to define your objective. For example if your aim is to reduce Employee Turnover by 20% then your “Y” should be to reduce by x%. This should take care of your Define phase.
    Now once you have done this you need to find out where you are currently. This would be the baseline for Improvement. what you also need to do in this phase is to make sure that your Measurement System is also robust and does not in any way be misleading. This is known as Gage R&R. Not to worry rite now about what it all means.
    Having completed this phase you are now in the Analyse Phase wherein the objective should be to identify root causes for “High Employee” turnover. A useful tool is the Fishbone Analysis a.k.a Ishikawa diagram. This typically should be a cross functional effort and you need to rope in all the Managers and not just involve the HR people.
    This Brainstorming session is going to result in a number of casues .. so how do you prioritise?? Fear not .. use the FMEA and voila you will be able to prioritise on the areas that you need to take corrective action.
    This in my opinion should take about a month and half of dedicate effort
    This marks the end of your Analyse phase.
    You are now ready for the Improve phase. What you need to do in this phase is use a variety of tools like Process Mapping, Fishbone & also establish Measurement SCorecards to track improvement actions.
    Now what I have suggested is a very broad level Roadmap of how to go about your project.
    All the best with your assignment. Feel free to get in touch with me in case you need more clarifications
    Regards and have a great day

    .

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    #67223

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi
    My two bit to understand the role of the Champion (a.k.a the sponsor)
    The Champion Or Sponsor Is The Person(s) Who Is Accountable For And Sanctions A Six Sigma Project. The Champion Or Sponsor Is Involved In Project Team Chartering, Reviews Progress, Helps Remove Organizational Barriers To Project Success, And Is Often The Decision-Maker For Approval Of Final Recommendations

    Regards and have a great day,

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    #67159

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hey Michael ,
    Very well put !! My two bit for you Zoe..
    Six Sigma’s main focus unlike other Quality Initiatives is on Financial Savings, savings that can be accrued by eliminating defects and cycle time reduction.
    This in my opinion is precisely the reason for Six Sigma getting the kind of acceptance it has been getting. So much so that some companies have actually started putting Savings thru 6 Sigma on their Balance sheets

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    #67121

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Meena
    For starters I would recommend that you surf this site a bit, this will give you an idea of what Six Sigma is all about. In case you do want to read a book on Six Sigma then there is one Universal book which all Six Sigma practitioners just swear by and the name of the book is “Six Sigma & Breakthrough Strategy”.
    But if it is only basic information that you are looking out for then I would recommend going thru the various sections in this site ..
    All the best

    Regards

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    #67095

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Sankar
    As per survey conducted a typical Indian company would be in the range of 2.5 – 3 Sigma an American in the range of 4 – 4.5 , whereas an average Japanese Company is at around 5-5.5 Sigma and this is without even implementing the Six Sigma Initiative

    Regards

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    #67091

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Joe
    I do have a lot of material on DFSS… but I am not too sure of what you really want…
    Can you please be more specific.. that way I will be in a better position to assist you…

    Regards

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    #67047

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Allen
    Forgive him for he knows what he writes !!!!
    Hey Raja,
    I guess I agree with what Allen had to say to you …looks like you do need to do some homework..
    Heres a small clue
    6 Sigma does not mean that you have to follow 6 steps …but it means something else

    Happy learning

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    #67046

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Annelie,
    If you want more information on what Six Sigma is all about , then I think you have come to the right place..
    http://www.isixsigma is in my opinion a fairly comprehensive site which gives you all the information you want.
    (By the way I dont work for isixsigma)
    Be it what Six Sigma is all about to news and views of people around the world to Tools and Methodologies of Six Sigma…
    This site also has a “Tip of Day” column which tells you about a new idea or tool every day…
    Happy surfing and all the best for your Masters Program

    Praneet

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    #67044

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi
    Hope to make it easy for you…
    Assume that in order to create a product you need to do 6 different things… then in this case the # of Opportunities is 6. What this means is that unless these 6 steps are done correctly, then no defects can be produced.

    Regards

    Praneet

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    #67027

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi
    If it is basic SPC tools like Trend Charts , Histograms that u want , then you can use Excel itself… to create these graphs for you…
    However if you do want additional graphs and analysis done then I would suggest that instead of entering the data in excel u can also enter the data into the Minitab worksheet directly .. The way I see it it take all of 10 seconds to cut paste the data from Excel to Minitab in any case
    Regards

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    #67016

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi John,
    I would like to share with you what we had done with a similar problem that we faced when we were shipping out our product.
    We had about 50 odd parts which needed to be shipped out as accessories along with the machine. The first thing that we did was prepare a checklist of all the parts that needed to be packed. Then an inspector would come and inspect the box,and this process would take about an hour and half, as you can see we were utilising a man just for inspection. Inspite of this there were times when we would get Customer Complaints saying that some accessory was missing. This only goes to show how even 100% inspection is not the best answer.
    After brainstorming for a solution we came up with the idea of designing an EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) a.k.a thermocole in such a manner that each parts could sit in only cavity. What we managed to do by this is Poka Yoke the entire process ,now the inspector didnt have to go through the trouble of counting all the parts , he just would have to do a visual inspetion , see which cavities are empty and accordingly take the Accept or Reject Decision.
    Needless to say this cut down the cycle time for inspection as well as eliminating the errors due to either inspection or during the packing stage

    Feel free to get in touch with me in case you need more clarifications , I’d be glad to help

    Regards

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    #67015

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Zoe
    All the best for your Training program in France. In so far as companies are concerned who have implemented Six Sigma is concerned , I guess if France does have any Motorola, Allied Signal or GE operations then it would be a good idea to touch base with them and draw on their experiences with Six Sigma.
    If need be I guess you could also invite some of them to share their Six Sigma projects with the Forum

    Regards

    Praneet

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    #66982

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Jason
    I am not too sure what is the nature of your product or service. I guess I need more clarity to answer your query better. Nonetheless, I would like you to know that Six Sigma can and has been used in improving quality of products like jet engines to refigerators to pagers to medical life saving devices to etc etc etc and in so far as services are concerened in the IT industry in the Call centre industry in the Financial Services sector name a few.
    What I want you to appreciate is that the Tools and Techniques used in Six Sigma are not specfic to any Industry but are applicable all across, which is why in my opinion it is a highly potent tool for Problem Solving
    Regards and Have a great day

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    #66984

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Paul
    There are two parts to your question
    (a) There is way to calculate Process Capability for attributes data. U can use either the Binomial Distribution or Poissons distribution for the same.

    Binomial data
    Binomial data is usually associated with recording the number of defective items out of the total number of items sampled. For example, if you are a manufacturer, you might have a go/no-go gauge that determines whether an item is defective or not. You could then record the number of items that were failed by the gauge and the total number of items inspected. If you are an assembler, you could record the number of parts sent back due to poor fit in the assembly process and the total number of parts purchased. Or, you could record the number of people who call in sick on a particular day, and the number of people scheduled to work that day. These examples could be modeled by a binomial distribution if the following conditions are met:

    ·Each item is the result of identical conditions.
    ·Each item can result in one of two possible outcomes (“success/failure”, “go/no-go,
    ” etc.).
    ·The probability of a success (or failure) is constant for each item.
    ·The outcomes of the items are independent of each other.

    In so far as the second part of ur question is concerned then as long as you have a stable process then you will be having rejections as per your established process capability limits and you can accordingly design your sampling plans to inspect the components produced by you.

    Regards and have a great day

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    #66985

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Jesus
    Yeah I know how to make the QFD. But I am not too sure how I will be able to help you do one is this forum. Please email me your requirements and I shall let you know in a day or two

    Regards

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    #66986

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi John
    There are tables available on the internet which will help you out with finding out your Sigma value from Percentage. However I would like to share a ready reckoner which I use. Hope you find this useful

    % age DPMO Sigma
    69.15 308537 2
    93.33 66807 3
    99.38 6210 4
    99.97 233 5
    99.993 3.4 6

    Regards

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    #66920

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Christiane,
    Though I am not too sure if I have understood your question correctly , I shall try and attempt to answer it.
    Part 1
    “Here in Brazil, a matter that came up with the implementation of six sigma process is that not competitive when you have a short time delivery lead time.”
    Are you trying to say that the industry that you are in, makes products / services that have a short delivery lead time and Six Sigma may take a long time. Well the answer is that one of the major benefits of the Six SIgma initiative is to Cycle Time reduction without in any way increasing your defect count. An example can be shown here, GE as a company has proved how Six Sigma can be used in different types of industries from making an aircraft engine to manufacturing a light bulb, to providing financial services. The single common thread running across all these being to improve Operational efficiency thereby cutting down cycle time to deliver the product or service
    Hope this in some way answers your query

    Regards

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    #66919

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Patrick
    Dr Phil and Ken have given some very useful tips on the significance of Ppk & Cpk , I do not want to add to what has already been said ,but I would like you to go to the site below for getting a better understanding of what these indices are all about. The parent site is http://www.qualityamerica.com . I found this article very interesting. The link given below talks specifically of the significance of the Ppk index
    http://www.qualityamerica.com/knowledgecente/knowctrInterpreting_a_Process_Capabilit.htm

    Regards

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    #66897

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi
    To answer your question …what you probably need to do is basically carry out the following steps
    (a) Measure where you are :- Measure the current process capability of your process.. this will give you the Mean & Standard Deviation of the process
    (b) Next do a Root cause analysis :- You may be surprised to find out that besides incorrect invoices from your SUppliers there may be other systemic issues with your oww process which could be causing the delay
    (c) Next fix the issues found during your Root Cause Analysis study and set up a measurement system in place to track the improvements
    Tools that you can use for this are Capabaility Analysis, Fishbone (a.k.a Ishikawa diagram), Pareto Analysis , FMEA and Control Charts

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    #66896

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Niraj
    Any service or product industry that you look at is made up of a series of processes. The industry that you are in , the Insurance Sector is no different and hence the principles of Six Sigma is also applicable to it.
    What you need to do is look at the critical processes that you go through to deliver the end product and Implement Six Sigma projects in those areas.
    In so far as Specific examples related to the Inusrance sector is concerned I am afraid that I dont have any.
    Under the umbrella of Six Sigma what you can also do is look at Similar processes being followed in different industries (a.k.a Benchmarking) and mould it to your requirements.

    Regards and have a great day

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    #66874

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Joanna
    I have basically divided your question in two parts and shall attempt to answer them

    (a)Project selection repeatedly comes up as an area of concern amongst many companies implemeting Six Sigma .
    The reason why Project Selection does come up as a problem area is primarily becasue more often than not they are not really tied up with the main business Objectives.. A good idea to avoid this trap is basically get a funnel of projects from the main business Objectives
    For instance
    If an organisation A has set out 4 main objectives for the year, the get all the Stakeholders of the process into a room brainstorm process / products that need to focussed and implement Six Sigma projects in those areas. The reason why this is important is by doing so it gives all the Six Sigma project owners a holistic picture of how their projects would directly be in line with what the organisation is set out to achieve.
    Now this is true not only for the Six Sigma approach but for any other Quality Initiative that a company sets out on.
    Any projects initiated must tie in with the Business Obejctives

    Now for the second part of your question

    (b)Issues involved with project selection and financial analysis.
    To put it simply What is the kind of investment that I am looking at for either process / product enhancements? &What is my return on Investment?
    The answer to this question lies in the first part wherein you tie up ur project selection to the impact that it creates on the Company Objectives… By putting in ur hard earned dollars in improving a product / service will u be getting the revenues commensurate with it?? , is something which u can easily identify if you do the first part of the exercise right the first time
    Phew !!! I could go on and on but I guess I need to end here ….
    I hope I have been able to clarify atleast some of ur doubt

    Regards and have a great day

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    #66873

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Preston,
    I shall attempt to answer your query… Basically let us get the fundamentals clear.
    Cpk = Basically means “Process Capability INdex” an index of how good ur process is.

    Ppk = Process Performance Index, this index basically tries to verify if the sample that you have generated from the process is capable to meet Customer CTQ’s (read requirements)It differs from Process Capability in that Process Performance only applies to a specific batch of material. Samples from the batch may need to be quite large to be representative of the variation in the batch. Process Performance is only used when process control cannot be evaluated. An example of this is for a short pre-production run.
    Process Performance generally uses sample sigma in its calculation; Process capability uses the process sigma value determined from either the Moving Range , Range , or Sigma control charts.

    The calculated Process Performance and Process Capability indices will likely be quite similar when the process is in statistical control.

    One more suggestion , instead of manually computing the Cpk & PPk figure try using Minitab , a statistical Software for your computations.
    WHen u enter the data for the process capability study the sotware generates a Graph which computes both the Cpk as well as Ppk ..
    Hope I have helped you in clearing your doubts about Cpk & Ppk
    Regards
    Praneet

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    #66826

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi dudu
    In order to explain to a layman, Black Belt is someone who
    (a) Is a key player for Institutionalising the Six Sigma Initiative within the company.
    (b) Is someone who is well versed in the DMAIC & DMADV methodologies of Six Sigma
    (c) Is someone who mentors Six Sigma projects.
    (d) Ties down Six Sigma projects to achieve desired Business Goals & Objectives

    Regards

    Praneet

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    #66812

    Praneet
    Participant

    Hi Joe
    This is an issue which most companies do face when they Kick of their Six Sigma initiative…. and unless you do something to generate the enthusiasm around, there is a very good probability that the Six Sigma initiative will die a slow but sure death.
    Couple of things to be done during this phase
    (a) Communicate , Communicate & Communicate:- Nothing works better than this. Communication can in the form of a Six Sigma Dashboard giving details of the projects being undertaken, team members involved,future Roadmap etc. What you could additionally do is put up the photographs of the Project Team Leaders also.
    (b) Celebrate success stories in a big forum: To give you an example, I did face a lot of resistance from the workers in working on Six Sigma projects, the challenge given to me was to make sure that more and more of them worked on projects. SO what I did was I announced a Six Sigma project competition exclusively for them and in a matter of four weeks I had about 15 entries. A review board was formed to evaluate these projects comprising both the Management and the Staff members and the projects were judged. The results were then declared the next day in a company wide meeting, wherein all the workers who had worked on the project were felicitated and given some prizesand the top three projects were asked to make their project presentations. The winner was then announced after all the presentations were made. Special Prizes were given to the top three teams by the MD
    (c) The entire event was videotaped and then we made a 10 minute capsule of the same, which was then showed to all the workers in the Cafteria during the lunch break.
    I had figured that by doing this exercise I would atleast be able to engage 50% of the workforce but what happened after this was quite unprecedented, I had a flood of requests from the workers to mentor their projects
    Moral of the story :- Create a lot of visibility for the first Six Sigma projects that are being rolled out and you can rest assured that the rest of the stuff will fall in place.
    IN case you do need more clarifications please feel free to call me up … My cell # is 919844172686

    Regards and Have a terrific day
    Praneet
    Bangalore, India

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    #66815

    Praneet
    Participant

    To build on what some people have already said.
    It basically depends on the kind of project that you are implementing…
    DMAIC projects typically are carried out where we need to improve the existing product / service and the max that you can reach is a level of 4.8 Sigma. Now having said this what I mean is that in case we do come across a step where in we need to add some new process / machinery/ improve feature design, then in my opinion the current DMAIC project should be abandoned and the learnings of this should be converted into a new DMADV project.
    Having started a DMADV project we can estimate the costs that one can incur to achieve a six sigma product/ process.
    In so far as savings in DMAIC projects are concerned the way calculations are done is by computing the Costs saved by raising the Quality Level from x Sigma level to the Target “y” level.

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