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What Is the Origin of Measurement System Analysis (MSA)?

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This topic contains 7 replies, has 4 voices, and was last updated by  Aerospacer 2 months, 1 week ago.

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  • #239203

    Aerospacer
    Participant

    Hello,

    I’ve been scouring the internet for a while now, but have thus far not been able to find out when, where and by whom the concept of MSA has been developed for the first time/established. I know it was already being used in the 1980s by Toyota/Japan, but I’m unsure whether it was somewhere else already before then?

    Hopefully one of you can get me to the answer (+ sources)

    Thanks in advance,

    Aerospacer

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    #239399

    Strayer
    Participant

    Have you looked at Wikipedia? The page on measurement system analysis has references. Just saying.

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    #239419

    Aerospacer
    Participant

    Hey Straydog,

    Thanks for commenting! Yes, I did check wiki (& just did it again for complete certainty :p), which resulted in the following:

    [i]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Measurement_system_analysis

    References

    Montgomery, Douglas C. (2013). Introduction to Statistical Quality Control (7th ed.). John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-14681-1.
    Wheeler, Donald (2006). EMP III: Evaluating the Measurement Process & Using Imperfect Data. SPC Press. ISBN 978-0-945320-67-8.
    Niles, Kim (2002). Characterizing the Measurement Process in iSixSigma Insights Newsletter, Vol. 3, #42. ISSN 1530-7603.
    Burdick, Richard K.; Borror, Connie M.; Montgomery, Douglas C. (2005). Design and Analysis of Gauge R&R Studies: Making Decisions with Confidence Intervals in Random and Mixed ANOVA Models. SIAM. ISBN 978-0-898715-88-0.
    AIAG (2010). Measurement Systems Analysis, MSA (4th ed.). Automotive Industry Action Group. ISBN 978-1-60-534211-5.[/i]

    So that’s not really bringing me anything further :<
    Surely there must be better/older sources/references?

    If you happen to know, I’d be most grateful for hearing!

    Thanks again,

    Aerospacer

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    #239430

    Strayer
    Participant

    I don’t know the answer. As soon as people began measuring it was known that there had to be standards and that measurement instruments weren’t infallible. Many people have contributed to the body of knowledge for statistically determining how much of the observed variation may be due to the measurement instrument, from Shewhart in the 1920’s and others before him. Tracking down the origins would be an interesting topic for a research paper but not germane. For understanding why and how we do MSA you probably can’t do better than Wheeler.

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    #239431

    Robert Butler
    Participant

    As @Straydog has noted references to standards in measurements has a very long history. The link below suggests referring to such checks as MSA occurred sometime in the 1970’s

    https://www.q-das.com/fileadmin/mediamanager/PIQ-Artikel/History_Measurement-System-Analysis.pdf

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    #239451

    Mike Carnell
    Participant

    @aerospacer @Straydog @rbutler I am not sure I can answer this completely but I might be able to help with some of it.

    In the late 1980’s I was working at Motorola Government in a captive PCB fabrication house. It was done for security reasons and we could not send out prints of PCB’s unless they had compliant security systems for up to Top Secret material. Motorola got a new manager in our PCB facility. I thought he was a jerk at the time but ended up respecting him a lot. We rejected some boards and the sampling plan according to the spec basically destroyed the entire lot. Mike took the position that my inspection was bad not his boards and that he would only allow us to proceed if we could prove our inspection/test was good. Nobody had ever done that. We were government and we just followed rules. I worked with John Hathaway to come up with some convoluted way to analyze data about our test methodology. Everybody bought it but nobody believed it.

    A couple months later I was at Motorola SPS (5005 McDowell facility) and mentioned this to a guy. He said he had seen something like that and rummaged around in this desk for about 15 minutes until he found some old sheets that had been copied from something (it was the old GR&R methodology). I took it back and kicked it around with some people and it seemed to make sense. There was nothing on the copies that told us where it came from so basically we just had to rely on taking the calculations apart and deciding what they told us.

    The first guy that actually did anything with it was Mario Perez Wilson. He was bringing up a new FZU-48 line which was basically an alternator for the FMU-139 bomb fuse. Mario did probably the cleanest launch ever in Government Electronics up to that time. Mario has a book titled Six Sigma, interestingly enough, that for legal reasons is not about the FZU-48 line but is heavily influenced by that experience. Mario was the first guy to actually begin consulting outside of Motorola but not as Six Sigma but as MPCpS. Machine Process Capability System has always used MSA/GRR as part of the system. Very classy guy with impeccable integrity. https://www.mpcps.com/

    As a side note GR&R was not always readily accepted. On Friday evenings (late 1980’s) we would all meet a local place called Duck and Decanter. A bunch of QA nerds drinking beer and wine but they had a water feature with fish so it gave our children something to do. I got into a GR&R conversation with a person I respected a lot, just not that night. The conversation elevated. When we left my spouse informed me that if I ever did that in public again she would never go anywhere with me again. Getting people to accept this was painful.

    Fast forward from the late 1980’s to Wave 1 Allied Signal, Safety Restraints in Knoxville Tennessee January 1995. We are teaching GR&R as part of Measure (D had not been added yet). I was supporting some great people in the Knoxville facility. I met my champion for the seat belt factory, John Lazur. At that time the AIAG book on MSA listed John in the very front of the book as one of the originators of GR&R. He was one of the people who wrote the original manual. I have not had contact with John in years but if you want to know where he and his friends go the idea for GR&R I would look for a way to contact John Lazur. You may have to pay for a round of golf to get him to discuss it with you. In the event that John is no longer with us he had a partner he ran with, looked like his brother. I have had contact with him so If I can remember his name he may be an alternative source.

    So now I have you back to the authors of the original AIAG manual. At one point in my career I worked with a guy who was part of a group of people who created the first automatic flush valve for toilets. It was amazingly simple and worked. It flushed a toilet. Now they have become more complex and there are people who specialize in automatic flush valves. Enough with the valve – leave it alone. Since we stated incorporating MSA into the Six Sigma methodology it has become more and more complex in terms of analysis. It has become a toilet flush valve of analysis. I do not want to be resistant to change but there is one question you answer before any other – is this measurement system good enough to do what I need it to do?

    Now Robert Butler sent me a paper he had written with a MSA on a device that measure pressure. I am not sure How much of that I can disclose but if you see the measurement device and its application you will NEVER accept anyone telling you that something cannot be measured again. Maybe you can convince him to divulge some of it. I was extremely impressed.

    And for all you transactional guys out there that believe MSA doesn’t apply. It was the root cause to the Sub Prime Mortgage Crisis. It was critical in the Theranos fraud. Smart people have lost millions because they wander around mumbling about Big Data and never as about quality of the data (MSA). You need to understand this concept.

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    #239465

    Strayer
    Participant

    @aerospacer I’m sure you know that when the result of a reputable opinion survey is published they include a margin of error. This is MSA although it isn’t called that and isn’t calculated using GR&R. Bottom line is that we’ve long known that measurements are not 100% accurate and reliable and those who are wise have found ways to put a number on this so that we know how much we can trust our measurements, long before six sigma.

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    #239740

    Aerospacer
    Participant

    Thank you for all the replies guys, I do believe this gets me to where I want to go/be. :)

    @Straydog I’ll be sure to have a peek at Wheeler, sounds very worthwhile!
    Furthermore, yes, I agree that MSA has been around – without it being defined as that – from much before already, as results have always had a need to get verified/validated in some way and/or have it mentioned that they are not to be trusted 100%, due to some error/margin, assumptions made/etc. Complying with your survey remark.

    The link as provided by @rbutler gives “A Brief History of Measurement System Analysis”, which is all I hoped for. From this I suppose it is safe for me to assume that taking the late 70s, early 80s as a start for MSAs (in the sense of the more modern defition of MSAs and it’s application in industry at a larger scale) to be a propper estimate, which I can now also backup with a nice reference (qdas).

    Wow @mike-carnell, you sure have had a very colourful career in which you’ve been part of several important things which are now actually embedded in history. Thank you for sharing your experience/knowledge, this certainly adds to my view on MSAs. I love the personal memories about Duck and Decanter with water features and fish, which you “QA nerds” used to keep your kids entertained :p

    Although I mention I suppose I have enough information to work it, if you do not feel it to be too much of a hassle, I’d love for you to try and reach out to your friend John Lazur and see what he remembers about MSAs. As for the round of golf… I take it you (and him) are USA citizens, I’m however a Dutch guy and hardly ever in the states…

    Sorry for staying away so long, I was on vacation and got swamped with other stuff which made me forget about this.. :<

    Aerospacer

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