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Understanding Process Sigma Level

Six Sigma is a data-driven approach to quality, aimed at reducing variation and the associated defects, wastes and risks in any process. This article explores the basics of Six Sigma process quality – definition and measurement. In a set of data, mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) are defined as: μ = x1 + x2…

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Table of the Standard Normal (z) Distribution

Z score is a measure of the distance in standard deviations of a sample from the mean. It is calculated as (X – X bar) / sigma. The table of z distribution is shown below. Table of the Standard Normal (z) Distribution z 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.0 0.0000…

Improved Forecasting with Moving Averages and Z-scores

Forecasting is an integral part of business management. The better the forecast, the better management will be able to plan for the future. Although there are many methods for making forecasts, some are better suited than others for particular situations. For short-term forecasting, Black Belts can benefit from analyzing production trends and looking for special…

The Impact of Control Strategies on Z Shift Values

When the principles of statistical process control (SPC) are used to manage a business or manufacturing process, any indication of the process going out of control will prompt some action on the part of the process owner. When it is well used, SPC will detect shifts in the process due to issues such as tool…

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