Definition of Runs Test:
Use Runs Test to see if a data order is random. Runs Test is a nonparametric test because no assumption is made about population distribution parameters. Use this test when you want to determine if the order of responses above or below a specified value is random. A run is a set of consecutive observations that are all either less than or greater than a specified value.
Suppose an interviewer selects 30 people at random and asks them each a question for which there are four possible answers. Their responses are coded 0, 1, 2, 3. You wish to perform a runs test in order to check the randomness of answers. Answers that are not in random order may indicate that a gradual bias exists in the phrasing of the questions or that subjects are not being selected at random.