## Randomization: Key to Reducing Bias and Increasing Accuracy

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Not all experiments are created equal. Learn how randomization can improve the validity of any business’ experiments aligned with Six Sigma principles. Randomization in Six Sigma Business owners and managers want to know what works and what doesn’t when it comes to existing processes and methods of operation. Running experiments and assigning inputs and outputs […]

## TEAM

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When you are part of an organization that is working towards goals, you are part of a team. A team moving toward hitting milestones can sometimes need to generate excitement and motivation while inching toward the goal line. This is why we have acronyms like TEAM. An acronym like TEAM can be used by team […]

## How to Track and Improve Customer Expectations Using Result Measurables

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Measurables indicate how a process is performing or how customer expectations are being met. These indicators are quantifiable, expressed numerically, and can have units of measurement. There are two kinds of these indicators. They are process measurables and result measurables. It is important in any business to know if you are meeting the expectations of […]

## Y

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In discussions about the Six Sigma methodology, you will often find the equation Y=F(x). It is an important formula in working with the methodology and can serve as a very helpful tool in project management. When working with the Y=f(x) formula, X stands for the various inputs utilized to generate an outcome, while f represents […]

## How Simple Linear Regression Helps Make Sense of Data

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What is the point of having a bunch of raw data if you don’t have the tools to analyze it? Regression models provide you with the ability to see if there is a relationship between two types of variables, helping make some sense of data that has been collected by fitting it to a line. […]

## How a Drone Project Increased Efficiency and Eliminated Waste

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Arrow Electronics had already been utilizing Six Sigma practices when it introduced its drone project in 2016 at its two main distribution centers in Malaysia and Asia. The drone project gained them further recognition for their use of Six Sigma methodology and helped usher in a new era of using drones in warehouses in the […]

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You are probably familiar with the notion that there are costs of poor quality, often shown as COPQ. These represent both internal and external failures to maintain good quality. There are also costs associated with maintaining good quality sometimes represented as COGQ. These costs represent appraisal and prevention costs. Total Cost of Quality (TCOQ) is […]

## What is the Bartlett Test and How is it Used in Statistical Analysis

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The Bartlett Test is named after the English statistician, Maurice Stevenson Bartlett. The test is also known as the Bartlett’s test for homogeneity of variances. It is most used in the context of doing a 1-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). ANOVA is used to determine whether there is any statistical difference between the means of […]

## What are Transformations? A Complete Guide

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Many statistical tools have an assumption of normality. Is there an option if my data is not normal? Transforming your data might help. Some statistical methods, such as hypothesis testing, have an underlying assumption of normality of your data before they can be used. Although control charts are generally robust to normality issues, sometimes the […]

## Sampling

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It is often not possible or practical to collect all the data from your process. It can be too costly or take too much time. It may not be possible to access all the data. If this situation exists in your process, then you will need to sample your data. Overview: What is sampling?  There […]

## What You Need to Know About ISO 9000 Series of Standards

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ISO 9000 is a series of standards, developed and published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It defines, establishes, and maintains an effective quality management system for manufacturing and service industries. Overview: What is the ISO 9000 series?  ISO 9000 is a series of individual standards. The core standards contained within the series are: […]

## Make Informed Decisions with Quantitative Data

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There are two broad categories of data in statistics: quantitative data and categorical data. Quantitative data is something you measure or count while categorical data presents data in categories or groups rather than the actual values themselves.  Overview: What is quantitative data?  Quantitative data describe values and numbers which are measured or counted and can […]

## The Dos and Don’ts of Conducting Root Cause Analysis

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In the context of Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement, a root cause is defined as an issue or factor that causes a nonconformance or defect which, if eliminated, will improve the process. The root cause is the base issue which sets a cause-and-effect reaction in motion eventually resulting in a problem. Overview: What is root […]

## Recommitment to Six Sigma Achieves Maximum Results

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Honeywell was a company that had been utilizing the Six Sigma methodology for years. Distracted by a merger and other factors, however, the organization had begun to slip. With a revitalized stake in the Six Sigma process, the organization was able to turn itself around and become even stronger than before. DMAIC and Y=f(x) Helped […]

## Successful Reinvention Focused on Customers and Quality

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In 2008, Starbucks was taking a major hit from the financial crisis, losing customers to competitors, and having to close hundreds of stores. Despite having its back against the wall, some decisions made around key Six Sigma principles helped Starbucks bounce back better than ever. How Giving Quality and a Better Experience To Employees and […]

## The 2.67 Million Dollar Mystery (And How 5 LSS Tactics Solved It)

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This major beverage manufacturer was spending millions of dollars per year to replace recyclable plastic shells to transport 2-liter bottles from the plant to their customers. Where did all the plastic shells go? Let’s find out. The process of retrieving delivered plastic shells from the customer should have been easy, but apparently it wasn’t. The […]

## Following the Road to Improvement

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As a recently promoted Vice President, Chuck needed to quickly understand what all his people were doing. Chuck, a longtime employee of a major utility company, had been recently promoted to Vice President to take over the leadership of a wide range of different functions than what he had been managing. As a result of […]

## Six Thinking Hats

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Have you ever been on an improvement team that just doesn’t work as well as you expected? Was it because people weren’t trying or was the mix of personalities and perspectives not conducive to working together for a solution? Let’s see how one company handled this problem. Using the Six Thinking Hats helped this company […]

## How Motorola’s Continuous Improvement Efforts Led to Record Growth and Profit

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While Motorola had been an industry leader for decades, by the 1970s, many of its products were seen as potentially unreliable by consumers. The company addressed this issue by embarking aggressively on an innovative program of continuous improvement that has come to be known as Six Sigma. How Continuous Improvement Changed Consumer Perception Of Motorola […]

## Linearity vs. Repeatability: What’s the Difference?

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What Is Linearity? Before we can understand linearity, we must understand another measurement error known as bias. Bias is a consistent mistake that occurs in measurement. For example, every measure taken with your scale comes out heavier than the actual weight. Linearity measures the consistency of a bias over the entire range of possible measurements. […]

## How to Incorporate SS Process Reports into Your Quality Processes

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The Six Sigma process report is a Minitab tool that calculates process capability and provides visuals of process performance.

## Tangible vs. Intangible Benefits: What’s the Difference?

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What Are Tangible Benefits? Tangible benefits are positive results that can be accurately measured and quantified with standard measurements. In business, the term describes any kind of outcome that is directly associated with financial gain or loss. You can always boil down tangible benefits to a monetary value relative to other types of investments or […]

## Null Hypothesis vs. Hypothesis

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Null Hypothesis vs. Hypothesis: What’s the Difference? What Is Null Hypothesis? A null hypothesis is a prediction that there is no statistical relationship between two variables or two sets of data. Essentially, a null hypothesis makes the assumption that any measured differences are the result of randomness and that the two possibilities are the same […]